Lighting the way at ports
Lighting is a key consideration when it comes to cutting pollution and saving power and cost at ports because energy consumption and costs can account for a large portion of a terminal’s operating expenses.
Although a challenge, upgrading lighting provides opportunities for a port to lower its carbon footprint and energy consumption by becoming greener and more efficient. As ably demonstrated by the experts in this article, it really is just about finding the right fit for each job.
No stranger to port lighting
UK based Abacus Lighting is no stranger to LED port lighting. It offers a robust, high-performance and cost-effective range of anti-glare lighting for global ports no matter what their climatic conditions.
Abacus recently installed a 30m base-hinged mast at the Port of Cardiff which replaces floodlights on a lattice tower system, which are historically difficult to maintain both in terms of downtime and with regards to the risk to personnel working at such heights.
The base-hinged system allows for quicker and safer installation and maintenance, while reducing the time taken to carry out lengthy inspections on the mast when compared to a lattice tower.
This installation allows for a more efficient and greener performance too. To light the area, 12 powerful 300w Apollo LED lanterns are fitted to a mast in a 360 degree arrangement combined with an energy efficient lighting control system.
This allows for three of the lights to be left on continuously and the other nine to be turned off by a photocell when they are not needed, whereas the previous system had to be left on continuously. The reduction in energy usage and long term running costs have both decreased with the use of LED, in addition to the fact that the lighting system is now more controllable.
Abacus’s work at the Suez Canal Container Terminal (SCCT) meanwhile has included being responsible for the above ground lighting installation works over a four year period.
During this time, the firm completed four phases of installation for the mast and lighting solution including mast assembly, the fitting of control gear cabinets and the mounting and aiming of floodlights.
The terminal chose the Abacus GL800 raise and lower mast because the lighting needs to be in operation for 24 hours. The installation of a base-hinged raise and lower mast allows for safe and easy maintenance at ground level, minimising downtime and reducing the risk to personnel working at height.
Twenty of these 50m masts were installed across the terminal, each carrying 15 Rhea floodlights and CCTV equipment.
The Rhea floodlight has been used for many of Abacus’s port installations where conventional lighting has been the optimal choice. This lightweight 1kW HID conventional floodlight is manufactured with high pressure die cast aluminium and toughened front glass, meaning that it's suitable for harsh environments where the environment may cause corrosion to the lighting system.
The integral baffle of these fittings reduces upwards light output and limits glare for those working in the area, meeting port approval with strong emphasis on safety and the environment too.
Last year Abacus introduced the AAA-Lux range which included the AL-Series. This is a powerful high-performance large area LED fitting which has already been installed at ports such as the Port of Amsterdam, with more port installations of the AL-Series to come this year.
Light Emitting Plasma™ retrofit
When APM Terminals decided to relight its 52 hectare terminal in Mumbai, Gateway Terminals India (GTI), it considered both LED and Light Emitting Plasma (LEP) technologies. But it ultimately chose to replace its 1,400 High Pressure Sodium (HPS) luminaires with 700 of Resilient’s Light Emitting Plasma™ luminaires sold through EcoLights.
Given the two-for-one swap, APM went from 920 total system watts to 270 total system watts, or a 71% energy saving. Rather than simply replace two 400w HPS luminaires with one 270 watt, EcoLights designed and built four different types of carriages for the yard, wharf and other areas allowing each LEP luminaire to be mounted at slightly different angles in an effort to overlap.
An old adage in the industry says that the smaller the light source, the more precise the optics can be designed. Because LEP is by far the smallest point source for high illuminance applications, very few lumens are trapped in the luminaire. In this way typical hotspots can be eliminated.
The Photopic Lux of LEP has been found to match that of HPS, but the Scotopic Lux (ability to see during the night) of LEP is 300% to 500% more than HPS. In addition, the LEP light has less glare than existing HPS lighting and there is better visibility even at levels as low as 1 Photopic Lux.
The horizontal illumination is good as expected, but another important benefit of LEP is the improvement in vertical lux when compared to HPS. Not only does LEP do a superior job of lighting the work plane, there is overall visibility improvement in the container yard.
In earlier times, HPS was generally the light of choice due to its large radial coverage. As a result, the original locations of the poles were designed with large distances between each high mast. When APM decided to retrofit, LEP was found to be the only energy-efficient technology which matched the large radial coverage of the HPS.
In the case of LEDs, there was a huge concentration of light at the bottom of the mast as the lumens dropped sharply away from the base. When the results were plotted in a graph, it was found that the light coverage of LEP was twice the area of LED with much higher uniformity. An important point which was considered while taking the decision in favour of LEP.
A further benefit was the dramatic improvement of visibility as seen through security cameras. The original technology had a Colour Rendering Index (CRI) of 22 compared to 75 for LEP. Apart from the CRI, the unique properties of LEP, which is very similar to natural sunlight, improved visibility with security cameras.
Another benefit was the robust increase in lamp and luminaire life. With a 50,000-hour lamp life at L70, each luminaire is rated maintenance-free for 10+ years. Combining the energy savings with the increase in life, APM Terminals will achieve an ROI of 1.5 years.
While the installation is now nearly complete, the last benefit is perhaps the most important. What is the economic value of a forklift driver that can see further and clearer? We don’t know how to calculate this number but it may be the most significant benefit in the entire job.
The benefits of LED
Port Metro Vancouver has historically used high-pressure sodium (HPS) technology for its equipment lights but these HPS fixtures required frequent maintenance for lamp and ballast replacements.
HPS fixtures also require a warm-up time of up to 20 minutes before light output reaches full intensity. This led to operators leaving the fixtures on 24 hours per day to avoid this operational delay, which is not very efficient.
The DP World Vancouver terminal is committed to continuous improvement with regard to safe productivity, cost management, energy efficiency and sustainable solutions. So in 2012, it started exploring other options for its mobile equipment lighting.
In the autumn of 2012, DP World Vancouver deployed 14 of Phoenix’s 300W Modcom Hi LED floodlights on its quay crane trolleys. The superior quality was instantly realised in the light output over the vessel and in the hold and a reduction in maintenance requirements and energy consumption were recognised soon after.
After the initial success with LED floodlighting, several other fixture types were then deployed for trials (walkway lighting, area work lighting and portable lighting).
In the spring of 2014, an RTG was fully retrofitted with LED lighting (including 15 of Phoenix’s 150W EcoMod LED floodlights and 42 of Phoenix’s 17W PCWL LED walkway fixtures). This resulted in a 3% reduction in fuel consumption. Later that year, DP World Vancouver deployed a retrofit of its portal beam lighting on three quay cranes, using the same Phoenix LED fixtures.
The operators continued to push for additional RTG retrofits. RTGs with LED lighting are strongly preferred due to better illumination which creates a safer more productive working environment. In response to this feedback, a second RTG was retrofitted with Phoenix LED floodlights.
Since the switch to LED, DP World Vancouver has experienced increased and improved light output. It prefers the crisper white light that the Phoenix LED fixtures provide because they create a safer, more productive work environment.
Instant-on functionality allows operators to turn the lights off when they are not required and DP World Vancouver has seen reduced energy consumption – both electrical on its quay cranes and diesel on its RTGs.
In addition, the port has experienced no lighting-related outages on its cranes with LED fixtures.
Maintenance costs have been substantially reduced. No light sources have required replacement since the original installation of LED fixtures in 2012. This has reduced costs, decreased unplanned downtime and increased safety.
DP World Vancouver is in the process of ordering a new quay crane. It is scheduled for delivery in 2016 and will be fully equipped with Phoenix LED lighting. This decision was further supported by an incentive from the local power company.
Over the next few years, DP World Vancouver will continue to retrofit their quay cranes and RTGs with LED fixtures.
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